Effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the growth of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans: in vitro study
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser with flat-top handpiece on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The incidence of C. albicans (opportunistic commensal) and S. mutans (facultatively anaerobic) infections is increasing, despite available treatments. Cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were irradiated using Nd:YAG laser (LightWalker, Fotona) with flat-top handpiece (Genova, LightWalker, Fotona) at the following parameters: group G1: 0.25 W, 10 Hz, 15 s, 3 J and group G2: 1 W, 10 Hz, 60s, 59 J. The results were evaluated directly and 24 h after irradiation using a quantitative culture method (estimation of colony-forming units in 1 ml of suspension, cfu/ml), and microscopic analysis with Janus green stain and compared with control group in which laser was not applied. C. albicans was reduced by 20 up to 54% for G1, and for G2 by 10 up to 60% directly after the application. The cfu/ml values for S. mutans decreased by 13% (p = 0.1771) for G1 and 89% (p < 0.0001) for G2. In both test groups 24 h after the application, the number of colony-forming units decreased by 15–46% for G1 and by 15–64% for G2. The arrested cell division, increasing the surface area and increasing the number of metabolically inactive cells, were observed in morphometric analysis. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed a reduction in cell number and a significant decrease of cell metabolism after laser application for both C. albicans and S. mutans.